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Alternative Names Return to topSegmental glomerulosclerosis; Focal sclerosis with hyalinosis
Definition Return to top
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is scar tissue that forms in areas of the kidney that filter certain things out of the body. These areas are called glomeruli. They help the body get rid of harmful or unnecessary substances. Each kidney has thousands of glomeruli.
"Focal" means that some of the glomeruli become scarred, while others remain normal. "Segmental" means that only part of an individual glomerulus is damaged.
Causes Return to top
The cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is usually unknown. A small number of cases result from reflux nephropathy. The condition affects both children and adults. Males are affected slightly more often than females, and it also occurs more frequently in African-Americans.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis causes about 10 - 15% of all cases of nephrotic syndrome.
Symptoms Return to top
Exams and Tests Return to top
There are no strong clues to the diagnosis on physical examination, other than evidence of edema and elevated blood pressure. Signs of kidney renal failure and associated fluid overload may develop as the illness gets worse.
Tests may include:
Treatment Return to top
The goal of treatment is to control the symptoms associated with nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney failure.
In general, treatments may include:
See also: Kidney disease - diet
Outlook (Prognosis) Return to top
Over half of all persons with focal or segmental glomerulosclerosis develop chronic kidney failure within 10 years.
Possible Complications Return to top
When to Contact a Medical Professional Return to top
You should call your doctor if symptoms develop, especially if there is fever, pain with urination, or decreased urine output.
Prevention Return to top
No prevention is known.Update Date: 5/15/2007 Updated by: Robert Mushnick, MD, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Nephrology, SUNY Downstate Health Center, Brooklyn, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.