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Alternative Names Return to topNeonatal polycythemia
Definition Return to top
Hyperviscosity of the newborn is the slowing and blockage of blood flow that results when there are too many red blood cells in an infant's blood.
Causes Return to top
Hyperviscosity can occur when the percentage of red blood cells (RBCs) in the infant's blood is greater than 65%. This may result from various conditions that develop before birth, such as:
The extra RBCs block the flow of blood in the smallest blood vessels. This leads to tissue death from lack of oxygen. This blocked blood flow can affect all organs, including the kidneys, lungs, and brain.
Symptoms Return to top
Symptoms may include:
Exams and Tests Return to top
There may be signs of breathing problems, kidney failure, and newborn jaundice.
If the baby has symptoms of hyperviscosity, a blood test to count the number of red blood cells will be done. This test is called a hematocrit.
Other tests may include:
Treatment Return to top
The baby will be monitored for complications of hyperviscosity. If needed, an exchange transfusion will be done to lower the amount of red blood cells that are moving through the baby's blood vessels.
Other treatment may include increasing body fluids.
Outlook (Prognosis) Return to top
The outlook is good for infants with mild hyperviscosity and those who receive treatment for severe hyperviscosity.
Some children may have mild changes in neurological development. Parents who believe their child may show any signs of developmental delay should contact their health care provider.
Possible Complications Return to top
Complications may include: