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Alternative Names Return to topPneumococcal meningitis
Definition Return to top
Pneumococcal meningitis is a bacterial inflammation or infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
Causes Return to top
Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called pneumococcus). The bacteria is the most common cause of meningitis in adults, and the second most common cause of meningitis in children older than age 6.
Risk factors include:
Symptoms Return to top
Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include:
Exams and Tests Return to top
Physical examination will show:
For any patient with meningitis, it is important to perform a lumbar puncture ("spinal tap"), in which spinal fluid (known as cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF) is collected for testing.
Tests that may be done include:
Treatment Return to top
Antibiotic therapy should be started as soon as possible. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics.
If the antibiotic is not working, and the health care provider suspects antibiotic resistance, vancomycin or rifampin are used. Sometimes systemic corticosteroids may be used, especially in children.
Outlook (Prognosis) Return to top
Early treatment improves the outcome. However, 20% of people who get this disease will die of it and 50% will have serious long-term complications.
Possible Complications Return to top
About half of all patients have long-term complications, such as the following:
When to Contact a Medical Professional Return to top
Call the local emergency number (such as 911) or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:
Call the local emergency number if you develop any of the serious symptoms listed above. Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.
Prevention Return to top
Early treatment of pneumonia and ear infections caused by pneumococcus may decrease the risk of meningitis. There are also two effective vaccines available to prevent pneumococcus infection.
The following people should be vaccinated, according to current recommendations:
References Return to top
Swartz MN. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 437.Update Date: 9/28/2008 Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Jatin M. Vyas, PhD, MD, Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.