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Alternative NamesHyperthermia - malignant; Hyperpyrexia - malignant
Definition Return to top
Malignant hyperthermia is an inherited disease that causes a rapid rise in body temperature (fever) and severe muscle contractions when the affected person receives general anesthesia.
This condition is not the same as hyperthermia due to medical emergencies such as heat stroke.
Causes Return to top
Malignant hyperthermia is an autosomal dominant trait, meaning it requires only one parent carrying the disease for a child to inherit the condition. It may be associated with muscular diseases such as multiminicore myopathy and central core disease.
One form of malignant hyperthermia is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene
Symptoms Return to top
Malignant hyperthermia is often noted for the first time after a patient is given anesthesia during a surgical procedure.
Exams and Tests Return to top
There may be a family history of malignant hyperthermia or unexplained death during anesthesia.
Tests that may be done include:
Treatment Return to top
For an episode of malignant hyperthermia, a cooling blanket can help reduce fever. The use of a drug called dantrolene during episodes of malignant hyperthermia has greatly reduced the number of deaths.
Fluids given by IV and mouth, as well as certain medications, are essential for maintaining kidney function during an acute episode.
Support Groups Return to top
Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States - www.mhaus.org
Outlook (Prognosis) Return to top
Repeated episodes or untreated episodes can cause kidney failure. Untreated episodes can be fatal.
Possible Complications Return to top
When to Contact a Medical Professional Return to top
If you know that you or a member of your family has had problems with general anesthesia, or if you know you have a family history of malignant hyperthermia, be sure to notify both the surgeon and the anesthesiologist before having any surgery.
Prevention Return to top
If you or anyone in your family has malignant hyperthermia, it is very important to tell your doctor, especially before having surgery with general anesthesia. The use of appropriate anesthetic medication can prevent the complications of malignant hyperthermia during surgery.
It is important to avoid stimulant drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine (speed) and ecstasy as they may produce malignant hyperthermia-like problems in susceptible individuals.
Genetic counseling is recommended for anyone with a family history of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant hyperthermia.
References Return to top
Vicario S. Heat illness. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 6th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2006:chap 139.Update Date: 7/23/2008 Updated by: A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Greg Juhn, MTPW, David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, Division of Human Genetics, Children's Hospitalof Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed HealthcareNetwork (7/25/2007).