|Other encyclopedia topics:||A-Ag Ah-Ap Aq-Az B-Bk Bl-Bz C-Cg Ch-Co Cp-Cz D-Di Dj-Dz E-Ep Eq-Ez F G H-Hf Hg-Hz I-In Io-Iz J K L-Ln Lo-Lz M-Mf Mg-Mz N O P-Pl Pm-Pz Q R S-Sh Si-Sp Sq-Sz T-Tn To-Tz U V W X Y Z 0-9|
|Contents of this page:|
Alternative Names Return to topAndropause; Male reproductive changes
Definition Return to top
Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile function. These changes usually occur gradually.
Information Return to top
Unlike women, men do not experience a sudden change in fertility as they age. Instead, changes occur gradually during a process that some people called andropause.
Aging changes in the male reproductive system occur primarily in the testes. Testicular tissue mass decreases and the level of the male sex hormone testosterone stays the same or decreases very slightly. There may be problems with erectile function.
The tubes that carry sperm may become less elastic (a process called sclerosis). The testes continue to produce sperm, but the rate of sperm cell production slows. The epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland lose some of their surface cells but continue to produce the fluid that helps carry sperm.
The prostate gland enlarges with age as some of the prostate tissue is replaced with a scarlike fibrotic tissue. This condition, called benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), affects about 50% of men. This may cause problems with urination as well as with ejaculation.
In both men and women, reproductive system changes are closely related to changes in the urinary system.
EFFECT OF CHANGES
Fertility varies from man to man, and age is not a good predictor of male fertility. Prostate function is not closely related to fertility, and a man can father children even if his prostate gland has been removed. Some fairly old men can (and do) father children.
The volume of fluid ejaculated usually remains the same, but there are fewer living sperm in the fluid.
Decreases in the sex drive (libido) may occur for some men. Sexual responses may become slower and less intense. This may be related to decreased testosterone level, but it may also result from psychological or social changes related to aging (such as lack of a willing partner), illness, chronic conditions, or medications.
Aging by itself does not prevent a man from being able to enjoy sexual relationships.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) may be a concern for aging men. It is normal for erections to occur less frequently than when a man was younger, and aging men often have less ability to experience repeated ejaculation. However, ED is most often the result of a medical or psychological problem rather than simple aging, and 90% of ED is believed to be of medical rather than psychological origin.
Medications (especially those used to treat hypertension and certain other conditions) can cause some men to be unable to develop or maintain an erection that is sufficient for intercourse. Disorders such as diabetes can also cause ED.
Erectile dysfunction that is caused by medications or illness is often successfully treated. A primary health care provider or a urologist should be consulted if a man is concerned about this condition.
BPH may eventually interfere with urination. The enlarged prostate partially blocks the tube that drains the urinary bladder (urethra). Changes in the prostate gland predispose elderly men to urinary tract infections.
Vesicoureteral reflux (backup of urine into the kidneys) may develop if the bladder is inadequately drained, eventually resulting in kidney failure if untreated.
Prostate gland infections or inflammation (various forms of prostatitis) may also occur.
Prostate cancer becomes more common as men age. It is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death for men. Bladder cancer is also a common cancer in older men. Testicular cancers are possible, but these more often occur in younger men.
Many physical age-related changes, such as prostate enlargement or testicular atrophy, are not preventable. Early and proper treatment of underlying health disorders such as hypertension and diabetes that may be responsible for changes in urinary and sexual health may prevent later problems with urinary and sexual function.
Sexual response changes are most frequently related to factors other than simple aging. Satisfactory sex in older men is more likely if sexual activity has continued during middle age.
RELATED TOPICSUpdate Date: 8/10/2008 Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.