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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1770s 1780s 1790s – 1800s – 1810s 1820s 1830s|
|Years:||1803 1804 1805 – 1806 – 1807 1808 1809|
Year 1806 (MDCCCVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1806
January - March
- January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony.
- January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British.
- January 19 - The British occupy the Cape of Good Hope.
- February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see: Action of 6 February 1806.
- March 23 - After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their " Corps of Discovery" begin their journey home.
- March 29 - Construction authorized of the National Road, becoming the first United States federal highway.
April - June
- April 8 - Marriage of Stephanie de Beauharnais, adopted daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte, to Prince Karl Ludwig Friedrich of Baden.
- May 30 - Andrew Jackson kills a man in a duel after the man had accused Jackson's wife of bigamy.
- June 5 - Louis Bonaparte is appointed as king of Holland by his brother emperor Napoleon.
July - September
- July 4 - Battle of Maida between Britain and France in Calabria.
- July 10 - Vellore Mutiny: the first instance of a mutiny by the Indian sepoys against the British East India Company.
- July 15 - Pike expedition: Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike leads an expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine to explore the west.
- August 6 - Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, thus ending the Holy Roman Empire.
- September - Prussia declares war on France, and is joined by Saxony and other minor German states.
- September 23 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches St. Louis, Missouri, ending a successful exploration of the Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest.
October - December
- October 14 - Battle of Jena-Auerstädt - Napoleon defeats the Prussian army of Prince Hohenlohe at Jena while Marshal Davout defeats the main Prussian army under the Duke of Brunswick, who is killed.
- October 19 - Emperor Jacques I of Haiti (Jean-Jacques Dessalines) is assassinated at the Pont-Rouge Haiti.
- October 24 - French forces enter Berlin.
- November - Napoleon declares a Continental Blockade against the British.
- November 15 - Pike expedition: During his second exploratory expedition, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees a distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (it was later named Pikes Peak in his honour).
- November 24 - The last major Prussian field force, under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, surrenders to the French near Lübeck. The Frederick William III has by this time fled to Russia.
- November 30 - Napoleon captures Warsaw.
- December 26 - 1806 Battles of Pultusk and Golymin. Battle of Pultusk: Russian forces under General Bennigsen narrowly escape from a direct confrontation with Napoleon, who goes into winter quarters; Battle of Golymin: Russian forces under General Golitsyn fight a successful rearguard action against French forces under Marshall Murat.
- Noah Webster publishes his first American English dictionary.
|Ab urbe condita||2559|
|British Regnal year||46 Geo. 3 – 47 Geo. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 乙丑年十一月十二日
— to —丙寅年十一月廿二日
|- Vikram Samvat||1862–1863|
|- Shaka Samvat||1728–1729|
|- Kali Yuga||4907–4908|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||806–807|
|Japanese calendar|| Bunka 3
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||106 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2349|
- January 27 - Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (d. 1826)
- February 22 - Józef Kremer, Polish messianic philosopher (d. 1875)
- March 6 - Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet (d. 1861)
- March 12 - Jane Pierce, First Lady of the United States (d. 1863)
- March 21 - Benito Juárez, Mexican statesman and folk hero (d. 1872)
- April 3 - Ivan Kireevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher (d. 1856)
- April 6 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, German scholar (d. 1876)
- April 9 - Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer (d. 1859)
- May 20 - John Stuart Mill, British philosopher (d. 1873)
- June 12 - John Augustus Roebling, German-born architect (d. 1869)
- June 28 - Napoleon Coste, French guitarist and composer (d. 1883)
- July 5 - James Dawson, Aboriginal Guardian (d. 1900)
- October 3 - Oliver Cowdery, American religious leader (d. 1850)
- December 11 - Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich, German geologist (d. 1886)
- January 23 - William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1759)
- February 2 - Rétif de la Bretonne, French writer (b. 1734)
- February 16 - Franz von Weyrother, Austrian general (b. 1755)
- February 19 - Elizabeth Carter, English writer (b. 1717)
- February 20 - Lachlan McIntosh, Scottish-born American military and political leader (b. 1725)
- March 23 - George Pinto English composer (b. 1785)
- April 9 - William V of Orange (b. 1748)
- April 22 - Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, French admiral (stabbed) (b. 1763)
- May 24 - John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, British field marshal (b. 1723)
- June 23 - Mathurin Jacques Brisson, French naturalist (b. 1723)
- July 10 - George Stubbs, English painter (b. 1724)
- July 11 - James Smith, American signer of the United States Declaration of Independence
- August 10 - Michael Haydn, Austrian composer (b. 1737)
- August 22 - Jean-Honouré Fragonard, French painter (b. 1742)
- August 23 - Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (b. 1736)
- September 9 - William Paterson, Signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of New Jersey (b. 1745)
- October 9 - Benjamin Banneker, American astronomer and surveyor (b. 1731)
- October 10 - Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, German prince (killed in battle) (b. 1772)
- October 25 - Henry Knox, Secretary of State under George Washington
- November 23 - Roger Newdigate, British politician (b. 1719)
- December 22 - William Vernon, American merchant (b. 1719)
- date unknown - Mungo Park, Scottish explorer (b. 1771)