|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1820s 1830s 1840s – 1850s – 1860s 1870s 1880s|
|Years:||1854 1855 1856 – 1857 – 1858 1859 1860|
Year 1857 (MDCCCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1857
January - June
- January 1 - The biggest Estonian newspaper Postimees is established by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.
- January 9 - An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 strikes near Parkfield, California; see Fort Tejon earthquake.
- February 3 - The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, DC, becoming the first school for the advanced education of the deaf.
- March 3 - France and the United Kingdom formally declare war on China in the Second Opium War.
- March 4 - End of term for President of the United States Franklin Pierce. He is succeeded by James Buchanan.
- March 6 - The Supreme Court of the United States rules in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case, driving the country further towards the American Civil War.
- March 21 - Earthquake in Tokyo, Japan kills over 100,000.
- March 23 - Elisha Otis' first elevator is installed (at 488 Broadway, New York City).
- April 18 - The Spirits' Book (Le Livre des Esprits in original French), one of The Five Fundamental Works of Spiritism, is published by the French educator Allan Kardec.
- May 10 - Indian rebellion of 1857: The 3rd Light Cavalry of the British East India Company's army rebels against its British officers, thus beginning the rebellion.
- May 11 - Indian rebellion of 1857: Indian combatants capture Delhi from the East India Company.
- June 6 - Sophia of Nassau marries the future King Oscar II of Sweden-Norway.
July - December
- July 15 - Indian rebellion of 1857: The second massacre at Kanpur takes place.
- July 18 - The Utah Expedition leaves Fort Leavenworth, effectively beginning the Utah War.
- August - Calcutta University established.
- September 11 - Mountain Meadows massacre in Utah.
- September 12 - The SS Central America sinks off the coast of North Carolina, killing 425 people.
- October 13 - New York Banks close following major financial panic and do not reopen until December 12.
- October 24 - Sheffield F.C., the world's first association football team, is founded in Sheffield, England.
- November 30 - End of term for President of Mexico Ignacio Comonfort. He is succeeded by Félix María Zuloaga.
- December 16 - An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 6.9 kills 11,000 people in Naples, Italy.
- December 31 - Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, Ontario as the capital of Canada.
- Divorce without parliamentary approval becomes legal in Britain.
- Speculation in U.S. railway shares causes financial crisis in Europe.
- The Mormons abandon Las Vegas.
- Founding of Hollywood.
- Restoration of the Mexican republic (see Mexico/History).
- Discovery of La Tene culture artifacts in Switzerland by Hansli Kopp.
- University of Bombay established.
- The Mughal Empire is finally destroyed by the British Empire.
- The city walls of Vienna are demolished, allowing the construction of the Ringstraße.
- William Daniel, American politician proposes Local Option for prohibition.
|Ab urbe condita||2610|
|British Regnal year||20 Vict. 1 – 21 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 丙辰年十二月初六日
— to —丁巳年十一月十六日
|- Vikram Samvat||1913–1914|
|- Shaka Samvat||1779–1780|
|- Kali Yuga||4958–4959|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||857–858|
|Japanese calendar|| Ansei 4
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||55 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2400|
January - June
- January 4 - Émile Courtet, French caricaturist and animator (d. 1938)
- January 26 - the 12th Dalai Lama (d. 1875)
- January 31 - George Jackson Churchward, GWR Chief mechanical engineer (d. 1933)
- February 13 - Almanzo James Wilder, Husband of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. October 23, 1949)
- February 22 - Lord Robert Baden-Powell, English founder of the Scouting movement (d. 1941)
- February 22 - Heinrich Hertz, German physicist (d. 1894)
- March 7 - Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austrian neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1940)
- March 8 - Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (d. 1919)
- March 27 - Karl Pearson, statistician (d. 1936)
- March 30 - Leon Charles Thevenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
- April 5 - Alexander of Battenberg, first Prince of Bulgaria (d. 1893)
- May 7 - William A. MacCorkle, Governor of West Virginia (d. 1930)
- May 13 - Ronald Ross, English physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1932)
- May 15 - Williamina Fleming, Scottish astronomer (d. 1911)
- May 19 - John Jacob Abel, American pharmacologist (d. 1938)
- May 31 - Pope Pius XI (d. 1939)
- June 2
July - December
- July 22 - Shams-ul-haq Azeemabadi, Islamic Scholar(d. 1911)
- July 23 - Carl Meinhof, German linguist (d. 1944)
- July 24 - Henrik Pontoppidan, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1943)
- July 28 - Ballington Booth, Salvation Army Officer and co-founder of Volunteers of America (d. 1940)
- July 30 - Thorstein Veblen, Norwegian economist (d. 1929)
- August 14 - Max Wagenknecht, German composer (d. 1922)
- September 5 - Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Russian scientist and inventor (d. 1935)
- September 8 - Georg Michaelis, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1936)
- September 13
- September 15 - William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States (d. 1930)
- October 24 - Ned Williamson, American baseball player (d. 1894)
- November 5 - Ida Tarbell, American journalist (d. 1944)
- November 17 - George Marchant, English-born inventor, manufacturer, and philanthropist (d. 1941)
- November 26 - Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss linguist (d. 1913)
- November 27 - Charles Scott Sherrington, English physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1952)
- November 28 - King Alfonso XII of Spain (d. 1885)
- December 3 - Joseph Conrad, Polish-British novelist (d. 1924)
- date unknown
- February 10 - David Thompson, British-Canadian explorer (b. 1770)
- February 15 - Mikhail Glinka, Russian composer (b. 1804)
- February 16 - Elisha Kent Kane, American explorer of Arctic regions (b. 1820)
- March 11 - Manuel José Quintana, poet (b. 1772)
- March 26 - Thomas Peters, Dutch supercentenarian (b. 1745)
- May 2 - Alfred de Musset, French poet (b. 1810)
- May 11 - Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal and private detective (b. 1775)
- May 13 - Parley P. Pratt, early Mormon church leader, murdered (b. 1807)
- May 23 - Augustin Louis Cauchy, French mathematician (b. 1789)
- June 30 - Alcide d'Orbigny, naturalist (b. 1802)
- July 4 - Henry Montgomery Lawrence, soldier and statesman (b. 1806)
- July 15 - Carl Czerny, Austrian composer (b. 1791)
- July 19 - Stefano Franscini, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1796)
- July 29 - Charles Lucien Bonaparte, French naturalist and ornithologist (b. 1803)
- August 3 - Eugène Sue, French novelist (b. 1804)
- September 3 - John McLoughlin, Canadian trapper (b. 1784)
- September 5 - Auguste Comte, French philosopher (b. 1798).
- November 12 - Maximilian Spinola, entomologist (b. 1780)
- November 26 - Joseph von Eichendorff, German poet (b. 1788)
- December 3 - Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor (b. 1777)
- December 15 - Sir George Cayley, English aviation pioneer (b. 1773)