|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1820s 1830s 1840s – 1850s – 1860s 1870s 1880s|
|Years:||1855 1856 1857 – 1858 – 1859 1860 1861|
Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1858
January - March
- January 14 - Felice Orsini and his accomplices fail to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris but their bombs kill 156 bystanders. Because of the involvement of French émigrés living in Britain, there is a brief anti-British feeling in France, but the emperor refuses to support it. Executed on March 13 of the same year by the guillotine.
- January 25 - The Wedding March by Felix Mendelssohn becomes a popular wedding recessional after it is played on this day at the marriage of Queen Victoria's daughter Victoria, "Vicky," the Princess Royal to Prince Friedrich of Prussia in St. James's Palace, London.
- February 11 - The Virgin Mary is said to have appeared to St Bernadette of Lourdes.
- March 30 - Hyman Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.
April - June
- April 16 - The Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, was wound up.
- May 11 - Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd U.S. state.
- May 19 - Marais des Cygnes massacre perpetrated by pro slavery forces in Bleeding Kansas.
- June 20 - The last rebels of the Indian Mutiny surrender in Gwalior.
- June 23 - Police of the Papal States seize Jewish boy Edgardo Mortara and take him away to be raised as a Catholic.
- May-July - Mahtra War in the Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire - peasants revolt against serfdom, that was officially abolished in 1816.
July - September
- July - Forty-Niners stream into the Rocky Mountains of the western United States during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush.
- July 1 - Papers by Darwin and Wallace announcing a theory of Evolution by natural selection read at London's Linnean Society.
- July 12 - First publication of The Advertiser, the daily news paper still in circulation in Adelaide, Australia
- July 17 - Salvage of the Lutine bell, which is subsequently hung in Lloyd's of London.
- July 28 - In Bengal/India, British officer William James Herschel used hand impression of Rajyadhar Konai as a contract fingerprint signature.
- July 29 - United States and Japan sign the Harris Treaty.
- August 5 - Cyrus West Field and others complete the first transatlantic telegraph cable after several unsuccessful attempts. The service ends on September 1 due to weak current.
- August 7 - Claimed by some to be first Australian rules football match between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College.
- August 11 - First ascent of the Eiger.
- August 16 - US President James Buchanan inaugurates the new trans-Atlantic telegraph cable by exchanging greetings with Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, a weak signal will force a shutdown of the service in a few weeks.
October - December
- November 17 - epoch of the Modified Julian Day
- November 17 - City of Denver, CO founded
- British Empire takes over powers & properties of the British East India Company (see also history of Bangladesh).
- William Marcy Tweed begins his thirteen-year term as " Boss" of Tammany Hall.
- British stop using prison hulks.
- Last Cape Lion seen.
- Haute couture firm of Worth and Bobergh established.
- Lincoln-Douglas Debates
- The Miners Association established in Cornwall, UK.
- Feudalism and serfdom in Bulgaria abolished in the Ottoman Empire; practically in 1880.
|Ab urbe condita||2611|
|British Regnal year||21 Vict. 1 – 22 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 丁巳年十一月十七日
— to —戊午年十一月廿七日
|- Vikram Samvat||1914–1915|
|- Shaka Samvat||1780–1781|
|- Kali Yuga||4959–4960|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||858–859|
|Japanese calendar|| Ansei 5
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||54 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2401|
January - June
- January 7 - Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, Russian-born advocate of the Hebrew language (d. 1922)
- January 10 - Heinrich Zille, German illustrator and photographer (d. 1929)
- January 11 - Harry Gordon Selfridge, American department store magnate (d. 1947)
January 27 - Cornelia Hubertina Doff French author of Dutch origin known as Neel Doff, nominee of the 1911 Prix Goncourt (d. 1942)
- February 15 - John Joseph Montgomery, American glider pioneer (d. 1911)
- March 10 - Kokichi Mikimoto, Japanese pearl farm pioneer (d. 1954)
- March 18 - Rudolf Diesel, German inventor (d. 1913)
- March 23 - Ludwig Quidde, German pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1941)
- April 23 - Max Planck, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1947)
- April 30 - Mary Dimmick Harrison, wife of President Benjamin Harrison (d. 1948)
- June 16
July - December
- July 9 - Franz Boas, German anthropologist (d. 1942)
- August 1 - Hans Rott, Austrian composer (d. 1884)
- August 2 - Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Dutch Queen and regent (d.1934)
- August 11 - Christiaan Eijkman, Dutch physician and pathologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1930)
- August 19 - Alfred Dyke Acland, British military officer (d. 1937)
- August 27 - Giuseppe Peano, Italian mathematician (d. 1932)
- September 1 - Andrew Jackson Zilker, American philanthropist (d. 1934)
- September 16 - Andrew Bonar Law, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1923)
- October 3 - Eleonora Duse, Italian actress (d. 1924)
- October 19 - George Albert Boulenger, Belgian naturalist (d. 1937)
- October 27 - Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1919)
- November 20 - Selma Lagerlöf, Swedish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
- November 26 - Katharine Drexel, Roman Catholic saint
- November 30 - Jagdish Chandra Bose, Indian physicist (d. 1937)
- December 22 - Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer (d. 1924)
- December 25 - Herman P. Faris, American temperance movement leader (d. 1936)
January - June
- January 5 - Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, Austrian field marshal (b. 1766)
- January 9 - Anson Jones, 5th and last President of Texas (suicide) (b. 1798)
- March 4 - Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, American naval officer (b. 1794)
- June 3 - Julius Reubke, German composer (b. 1834)
- June 28 - Auguste de Montferrand, French architect (b. 1786)
July - December
- August 14 - Tokugawa Iesada, shogun (b. 1824)
- September 17 - Dred Scott, American slave (b. ca 1795)
- November 15 - Li Hsu-pin, military leader (b. 1817)
- November 17 - Robert Owen, social reformer (b. 1771)
- December 3 - Joseph Marie Elisabeth Durocher, geologist (b. 1817)
- December 13 - Karl Ludwig Philipp Zeyher, botanist (b. 1799)
- December 17 - Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha, Ottaman statesman (b. 1800)